In 2016, the Expedition and Education Foundation, an anonymous charitable organization established to support marine research, funded the University of Southampton’s Black Sea Maritime Archeological (MAP) Project, the largest project “of its type ever undertaken.” This project was designed to survey the Bulgarian waters of the Black Sea, where thousands of years ago, large areas of land were submerged due to rising sea levels as the last ice age was ending.
The Black Sea was much smaller 12,000 years ago, and the project was designed to study what significant historical treasures were inundated by water, as glaciers melted and sea levels rose, and how these rising waters affected the human populations along the shorelines of the Black Sea.
John Adams, of the University of Southampton, led the team of archeologists and researchers in this study. The main instruments used to map the Black Sea floor were two specially designed ROVs or remote operated (underwater) vehicles. These ROVs are basically tethered underwater devices with instrument arrays, and are unoccupied and highly maneuverable. They are operated remotely from the mother ship, in this case, the Stril Explorer. On this expedition, MAP archaeologists lowered the two ROV’s to hunt for ancient shipwrecks and lost history.
When interviewed, Dr. Pacheco-Ruiz of the University of Southampton said he was watching the monitors one night in September when the ROV lit up a large wreck in a high state of preservation. “I was speechless,” he said. “When I saw the ropes, I couldn’t believe my eyes. I still can’t.” He was describing a beautifully carved, perfectly intact rudder with a coil of ropes hanging off one of the ships timbers. At the depths of this discovery, the oxygen levels are so low as to prevent any microorganisms from feeding on the wood timbers.
The remarkable color images of these wrecks are a result of the union of the ROV’s 2D images and cutting edge software, which uses photogrammetry, turning thousands of 2D images into 3D renderings. These are translated into the phenomenal final renderings of these wrecks, which look like actual photographs. The tethered ROV cameras shoot video and still photos using distance information from advanced sonars, with measurements often less than a millimeter. The software layers these images to produce incredibly realistic 3D digital models of entire shipwrecks that would normally only be barely seen from the top in the visible light spectrum.
The ships have been determined to be from the 9th century through the 19th century, spanning a thousand years of sea trade and travel. Goods traded on the Black Sea included grains, furs, horses, oils, cloth, wine and people. For Europeans, the Black Sea provided access to a branch of the Silk Road and the importation of silk, satin, musk, perfumes, spices and jewels. It is possible that Marco Polo was traveling this route when some of these ships sank around the 13th century.
Two other important elements of the MAP project are Education and Documentary. Eight students of school age were selected to join the science team on board in order to experience and even participate in many of the procedures. The documenting of this entire project is placed in the capable hands of Black Sea Films. Just as the science involved in this MAP project is cutting-edge, so is its filming, for the Black Sea Films team includes those who created the award-winning BBC series Blue Planet and Planet Earth.
The MAP findings of these ancient shipwrecks from the Byzantine and Ottoman Eras is the most significant underwater archeological discovery of this century and demonstrates how effective partnerships between academia and industry can be, especially when funded by enlightened bodies such as EEF.
AquaSur regularly makes a splash in the aquaculture world at its semiannual conferences. It's the most distinguished gathering of its kind in the Southern hemisphere, with major players in the field attending. In October 2016, Aquabotix CEO Durval Tavares traveled to Chile to take part in the AquaSur 2016 conference, which explored the present and future of ROVs in aquaculture and more. Over its four days, the conference accommodated 22,400 visitors representing 42 countries. Attendees included representatives from other ROV companies, food producers, medical companies, and chemical companies. By the end of the conference, there was widespread recognition that robotics was the wave of the future for keeping fish healthy and ensuring the livelihood of those in the aquaculture business.
Puerto Montt, Chile, hosted the event. Chile employs 80,000 people in its aquaculture industry, and is currently looking to expand the industry along the country’s northern coast. To encourage growth and safety in the aquaculture sector, pending legislation will likely encourage the use of ROVs to protect the environment. Using ROVs is a safer way to look underwater, especially inside nets, for problems that could affect the fish and nets. With the potential grown of ROV use in Chile and other countries with aquaculture industries, Aquabotix and its Chilean distributor TekChile, had an interested audience for showcasing various products from the Aquabotix line.
Outside the conference, separate events featured demonstrations of the ROVs from Aquabotix. These demonstrations greatly impressed those who saw substantial benefits over currently offered technology. The main advantages for farm operations of these products included the stability of the Endura and maneuverability. Thruster power was especially intriguing for the operators because it was unlike anything they'd seen. The Endura can be configured specifically for aquaculture with five standard thrusters, side thrusters, and a high output option. These attributes of Aquabotix's ROVs mean that these devices, and other ROVs like them, are predicted to not only be a perfect fit for the future of aquaculture but also a necessity as demand increases for fish and other water-grown products. Operators can use the extra thrusting power so the vehicle can be used in high currents compared to their current products.
The conference was a good time to illustrate the innovations represented by products such as the AquaLens Connect. Attendees at the conference discussed ways to reduce waste and cost, and underwater monitoring with the AquaLens Connect is a clear solution to these issues. The future of aquaculture will rely more on remote monitoring of nets and facilities as the industry expands. With remote monitoring, several sites can be watched at once, from a single screen, reducing the necessity for needing multiple people to watch several locations at once. The AquaLens Connect allows up to 32 cameras to be connected in a network for simultaneous viewing, and because the cameras are not static, a wider field of view is available to each camera. With pan and tilt of 120 degrees in each direction, a single camera can show a wide range of underwater space. When coupled with the unique abilities of an ROV, such as Endura's fish plow that removes dead fish, these devices make operations more profitable and safer for the employees and the fish.
The future of aquaculture is now, and ROVs and underwater cameras are on the forefront of the technology farm operators need to progress. By keeping up with the changing industry, and participating in exciting events like AquaSur 2016, Aquabotix will help our customers stay on the forefront of the evolving technical landscape.